Ka Sehloohong >> Boitsebiso Ba Lithethefatsi >> Diuretics: Ts'ebeliso, lihlahisoa tse tloaelehileng, le tlhaiso-leseling ka polokeho

Diuretics: Ts'ebeliso, lihlahisoa tse tloaelehileng, le tlhaiso-leseling ka polokeho

Diuretics: TsBoitsebiso ba Lithethefatsi

Lethathamo la diuretics | Diuretics ke eng? | Ba sebetsa joang | Sebelisa | Mefuta | Ke mang ea ka nkang diuretics? | Polokeho | Litla-morao | Litšenyehelo

Diuretics, eo hangata e tsejoang e le lipilisi tsa metsi, e eketsa palo ea mokelikeli o ntšitsoeng 'meleng ka moroto. E 'ngoe ea li-diuretics tsa tlhaho tse tsebahalang haholo ke caffeine, eo hangata e fumanoang kofi le tee. Leha ho le joalo, caffeine e na le litlamorao tse bonolo tsa 'diuretic' mme ha e sebelisoe joalo ka 'diuretic' maemong a bongaka.



Nalane ea sejoale-joale ea li-diuretics e qalile ka 1919 ha moithuti oa bongaka a fumana hore liente tse nang le mercury li sebetsa hantle bakeng sa ho ntša metsi ho bakuli ba syphilis. E ne e se ho fihlela Lilemong tsa bo-1950 le bo-1960 hore hangata thiazides le diuretics tse laetsoeng li fumanoe 'me li sebelisoa haholo. Kajeno, diuretics hangata e laeloa ho phekola khatello e phahameng ea mali le maemo a mang.



Tsoela pele ho bala ho ithuta haholoanyane ka mefuta e fapaneng ea diuretics, ts'ebeliso ea bona, le litlamorao.

Lethathamo la diuretics
Lebitso la Brand (lebitso le tloaelehileng) Karolelano ea theko ea chelete Theko ea SingleCare Ithute haholoanyane
Microzide (hydrochlorothiazide) $ 56 ka 30, 25 matlapa a mg Fumana litlankane tsa hydrochlorothiazide Lintlha tsa Hydrochlorothiazide
Hygroton (chlorthalidone) $ 31 ka 30, 25 matlapa a mg Fumana litlankane tsa chlorthalidone Lintlha tsa Chlorthalidone
Lozol (indapamide) $ 46 ka 30, matlapa a 2.5 mg Fumana litlankane tsa indapamide Lintlha tsa Indapamide
Zaroxolyn (metolazone) $ 105 ka 30, matlapa a 2.5 mg Fumana litlankane tsa metolazone Lintlha tsa Metolazone
Bumex (bumetanide) $ 91 ka 30, matlapa a 1 mg Fumana litlankane tsa bumetanide Lintlha tsa Bumetanide
Lasix (furosemide) $ 26 ka 30, matlapa a 20 mg Fumana litlankane tsa furosemide Lintlha tsa Furosemide
Demadex (torsemide) $ 35 ka 30, matlapa a 20 mg Fumana litlankane tsa torsemide Lintlha tsa Torsemide
Edecrin (ethacrynic acid) $ 95 ka 4, 25 matlapa a mg Fumana litlankane tsa acid ea ethacrynic Lintlha tsa acid ea Ethacrynic
Bohareng (amiloride) $ 42 ka 30, 5 matlapa a mg Fumana litlankane tsa amiloride Lintlha tsa Amiloride
Dyrenium (triamterene) $ 478 ka lipilisi tse 30, 50 mg Fumana litlankane tsa triamterene Lintlha tsa Triamterene
Aldactone (spironolactone) $ 30 ka 30, 25 matlapa a mg Fumana litlankane tsa spironolactone Lintlha tsa Spironolactone
Inspra (eplerenone) $ 235 ka 30, 25 matlapa a mg Fumana litlankane tsa eplerenone Lintlha tsa Eplerenone

Li-diuretics tse ling

  • Diuril (chlorothiazide)
  • Tlhaho ea tlhaho (bendroflumethiazide)
  • Enduron (methyclothiazide)
  • Renese (polythiazide)
  • Saluron (hydroflumethiazide)
  • Diamox (acetazolamide)
  • Daranide (dichlorphenamide)
  • Neptazane (methazolamide)
  • Diurex (pamabrom)
  • Osmitrol (mannitol)

Diuretics ke eng?

Ntle le moo e tsejoa e le lipilisi tsa metsi, diuretics ke meriana e eketsang letsoai le metsi a tsoang 'meleng. Meriana ena e eketsa tlhahiso ea moroto o hlahisoang liphio, e lebisang ho ho phahama ha moroto, kapa diuresis. Diuretics hangata e sebelisoa ho phekola khatello e phahameng ea mali (hypertension) le ho boloka metsi, kapa edema, e hlahang e le letšoao la ho hloleha ha pelo, mathata a liphio le ho hloleha ha sebete. Li-diuretics tse ling li ka sebelisoa ho phekola ho ruruha bokong ho bakoang ke ho lemala hampe hloohong kapa ho ruruha mahlong a bakoang ke maemo a mahlo joalo ka glaucoma .



Li-diuretics li sebetsa joang?

Li-diuretics li sebetsa ka ho fetola botsitso ba metsi, letsoai le li-electrolyte 'meleng.

Haholo-holo, li na le litlamorao ho lits'ebetso tse fapaneng liphio tse phethang karolo ho sodium le electrolyte reabsorption. Ho na le mefuta e fapaneng ea diuretics. E 'ngoe le e' ngoe ea tsona e ka sebetsa likarolong tse fapaneng tsa liphio , setho sa ho hloekisa sa mmele. Ka lebaka la ho eketseha ha sodium e tsoang liphio, metsi a mangata a tsoa 'meleng ka har'a moroto.

Ho kanna ha ba bohlokoa ho utloisisa sebopeho sa liphio le hore na se sebetsa joang ho utloisisa ka botlalo hore na diuretics e sebetsa joang. Phio ka nngwe e na le tse fetang milione e le 'ngoe nephrons, e leng likarolo tsa karafefe tse tlosang litšila le ho hlahisa moroto 'meleng. Ho ipapisitsoe le mofuta oa 'diuretic', hangata litlhare tsena li sebetsa ka har'a tubule e kopantsoeng, leoto le nyolohang la leqhubu la Henle, distule e kopantsoeng le distal kapa tubule e bokellang.



Li-diuretics li sebelisetsoa eng?

Diuretics e ka sebelisoa ho phekola maemo a fapaneng a amang pelo, liphio le sebete. Li boetse li sebelisoa e le antihypertensives ho theola khatello ea mali. Ka linako tse ling li-diuretics li hlekefetsoa ke ba nang le mathata a ho ja e le hore ba fokotse boima ba 'mele. Li-diuretics li ka fumanoa feela ka lengolo la ngaka 'me li ka sebelisoa ho phekola tse latelang:

  • Ho hloleha ha pelo
  • Ho hloleha ha ventricular ka ho le letšehali
  • Khatello ea mali e phahameng
  • Ho hloleha ho matla ha renal
  • Ho hloleha ha renal ea Oliguric
  • Majoe a liphio
  • Kotsi e mpe ea liphio
  • Lefu la liphio
  • Lefu la sebete
  • Edema ea pulmonary
  • Mefuta e phahameng ea calcium ea mali (hypercalcemia)
  • Mefuta e phahameng ea potasiamo ea mali (hyperkalemia)
  • Nephrogenic lefu la tsoekere insipidus
  • Phahameng intracranial khatello ea
  • Glaucoma

Mefuta ea diuretics

Li-diuretics tsa Thiazide

Thiazides e shebile cotransporter ea sodium-chloride ho thibela phepelo ea sodium, e thusang ho laola maemo a sodium le khatello ea mali. Joaloka sehlopha sa lithethefatsi, thiazide diuretics e thibela ho ts'oaroa hape hoo e ka bang 5% ea sodium ka har'a tubule e kopantsoeng ea distal. Thiazides e boetse e thibela ho sebelisoa hape ha potasiamo, e ka lebisang ho felisoeng ha potasiamo 'meleng. Maemo a potasiamo a tlase (hypokalemia) e ka lebisa morerong o sa tloaelehang oa pelo, hara mathata a mang. Ka lebaka la litlamorao tsa tsona, li-thiazide hangata li sebelisoa e le kalafo ea mohala oa pele oa khatello ea kelello ea 'mele ho fapana le li-inhibitors tsa ACE. Mehlala ea li-thiazide e kenyelletsa Microzide (hydrochlorothiazide) le Hygroton (chlorthalidone).

Liuretics tsa mothapo

Joalo ka li-thiazide, li-diuretiki tsa loop le tsona li thusa ho laola maemo a sodium liphio. Leha ho le joalo, li-diuretics tsa lupu li sebetsa karolong e nyolohang ea leqhubu la Henle ka nephron. Meriana ena e shebile cotransporter ea sodium-potasiamo-chloride ho thibela phepelo ea sodium le metsi. Loop diuretics le eona e ka fokotsa monya oa potasiamo, e ka lebisang maemong a tlase a potasiamo 'meleng. Loop diuretics e ka sebelisoa ho phekola ho hloleha ha pelo, ho hloleha ha liphio, maemo a phahameng a potasiamo (hyperkalemia), maemo a phahameng a calcium (hypercalcemia), le mefuta e mengata ea edema, joalo ka edema ea pulmonary. Mehlala ea diuretics ea lupu e kenyelletsa Bumex (bumetanide) le Lasix (furosemide) , hammoho le Demadex (torsemide).



Li-diuretics tse bolokang potasiamo

Li-diuretics tse bolokang potasiamo ha li bake ho tsoa ha potasiamo ka har'a moroto. Li-diuretiki tse bolokang potasiamo tse kang amiloride li tlama liteisheneng tsa sodium ho fokotsa ho kenella hape ha sodium maling. Sena se eketsa tahlehelo ea mokelikeli ntle le ho fokotsa maemo a potasiamo. Li-diuretiki tse ling tse bolokang potasiamo joalo ka spironolactone li sebetsa ka har'a li-tubule tsa distal le ho bokella methapo ho thibela litlamorao tsa aldosterone, hormone ea steroid e eketsang ts'ebetso ea sodium hape. Mehlala ea potassium-sparing diuretics e kenyelletsa Midamor (amiloride), Dyrenium (triamterene), Aldactone (spironolactone), le Inspra (eplerenone).

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

Carbonic anhydrase ke enzyme e fumanoang likarolong tse fapaneng tsa 'mele, ho kenyeletsoa lisele tse khubelu tsa mali le methapo e haufi ea liphio. Enzyme ena e thusa 'mele ho sebelisa sodium, bicarbonate le chloride hape. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors e thibela enzyme ena ho ntša lintho tsena le metsi a mangata 'meleng. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors hangata e sebelisoa ho phekola glaucoma. Mehlala e kenyelletsa Diamox (acetazolamide) le Neptazane (methazolamide).



Li-diuretics tse ling

Xanthine diuretics ke mofuta oa diuretic e bonolo e thibelang ho khutlisetsoa hoa mokelikeli ka har'a tubule e haufi ea liphio. Mehlala ea xanthine diuretics e kenyelletsa caffeine le Diurex (pamabrom). Li-diuretics tsa Osmotic sebelisa ts'ebetso ea osmosis ho hula mokelikeli le ho fokotsa ho boloka metsi. Li-diuretics tsa Osmotic li sebetsa haholo ka har'a li-tubule tse haufi le Henle. Sesebelisoa sa osmotic se sebelisoang hangata ke Osmitrol (mannitol), se sebelisetsoang ho fokotsa khatello ea kelello le ho phekola ho hloleha ha renal.

Ke mang ea ka nkang diuretics?

Batho ba baholo

Li-diuretics li sebelisoa hangata ho phekola edema le maemo a mang a pelo le methapo ho batho ba baholo. Ts'ebeliso ea diuretics ho batho ba baholo e tla latela boemo ba kalafo.



Bana

Bana ba ka fuoa li-diuretics ho fokotsa mokelikeli o mongata oa mokelikeli e bakoang ke ho hloleha hoa pelo le ho hloleha hoa renal. Ts'ebeliso ea diuretics ho bana e tla its'etleha ka boemo ba kalafo. Tekanyo ea diuretics ho bana hangata e baloa ka boima ba 'mele.

Na diuretics li bolokehile?

Hangata diuretics ke meriana e bolokehileng ha e sebelisoa joalo ka ha ho laetsoe. Ka lebaka la litlamorao tsa metsi, letsoai le electrolyte, li ka baka ho se leka-lekane ha mokelikeli le motlakase. Ho lahleheloa ke mokelikeli o feteletseng le hona ho ka lebisa ho felloa ke metsi 'meleng ho bakuli ba bang. Maemo a potasiamo a tlase le ona a ka tšoenyeha ka diuretiki tse ngata ntle le diuretics e bolokang potasiamo.



Ts'ebeliso e kopaneng ea diuretics le digoxin kapa lithium e kanna ea hloka ho beoa leihlo kapa ho qojoa. Bua le mofani oa tlhokomelo ea bophelo mabapi le litšebelisano tse ling tsa lithethefatsi le diuretics.

Diuretics oa hopola

Ha ho na li-diuretic tsa morao-rao tse hopolang ka Hlakubele 2021.

Lithibelo tsa diuretics

Se ke oa nka li-diuretics haeba o na le alejiki ho metsoako ea diuretics. Li-diuretics tse ling li na le sulfa, e ka bakang khatello ea maikutlo ho batho ba nang le tšoaetso ea meriana ea sulfonamide e kang sulfamethoxazole.

Batho ba bang ba baholo ba ka hloka ho beoa leihlo ha ba ntse ba noa diuretics. Li-diuretics li ka eketsa kotsi ea ho tsekela kapa ea oela ho batho ba baholo ka lebaka la postension hypotension , kapa ho fokotseha ka potlako ha khatello ea mali ha u fetola maemo a ho lula le ho ema.

A na u ka noa diuretics ha u le moimana kapa u anyesa?

Ka linako tse ling li-diuretics li fuoa nakong ea bokhachane bakeng sa khatello ea kelello kapa maemo a pelo. Leha ho le joalo, polokeho ea bona ha e so netefatsoe ke lithuto. Diuretics e lokela ho sebelisoa feela haeba melemo e feta likotsi. Tekanyo e phahameng ea diuretics e ka ama phepelo ea lebese le ho hatella lebese ho basali ba anyesang. Ikopanye le mofani oa tlhokomelo ea bophelo bo botle bakeng sa likeletso tsa bongaka pele u sebelisa diuretics ha u le moimana kapa u anyesa.

Na lintho tse laoloang ke diuretics?

Che, diuretics ha se lintho tse laoloang.

Litla-morao tse tloaelehileng tsa diuretics

Litla-morao tse tloaelehileng tsa diuretics li kenyelletsa:

  • Ho rota khafetsa
  • Botsoa
  • Hlooho e bobebe
  • Mokgathala kapa mokgathala
  • Ho opeloa ke hlooho
  • Moferefere
  • Maqhubu a mesifa
  • Letšollo
  • Ho se sebetse ha Erectile
  • Ho eketsa tsoekere ea mali

Litla-morao tse tebileng tsa diuretics li kenyelletsa maemo a tlase a potasiamo, kapa hypokalemia, e ka lebisang lipineng tse sa tloaelehang tsa pelo. Ntle le kalafo, maemo a tlase a potasiamo a ka lebisa mathateng a sokelang bophelo. Li-diuretics tse bolokang potasiamo ha li na monyetla oa ho baka lehlakoreng lena empa li ka baka maemo a phahameng a potasiamo (hyperkalemia). Diuretics e ka baka ho se lekalekane ho hong ha electrolyte joalo ka maemo a tlase a sodium (hyponatremia) le maemo a tlase a calcium (hypocalcemia).

Diuretics le eona e ka baka ho felloa ke metsi 'meleng ka lebaka la ho tsoa hoa maro a mangata. Matšoao a ho felloa ke metsi 'meleng a ka kenyelletsa lenyora le feteletseng, pherekano le moroto o lefifi.

Li-diuretiki tse ling tse kang li-thiazide li ka eketsa maemo a k'holeseterole ka nakoana.

Bolella ngaka ea hau haeba u na le nalane ea maemo ana a latelang pele u sebelisa diuretic:

  • Lefu la tsoekere
  • Gout
  • Mathata a liphio
  • Ho felloa ke metsi 'meleng
  • Pancreatitis
  • Lupus
  • Mathata a ho ilela khoeli

Bua le mofani oa tlhokomelo ea bophelo ho ithuta ka litla-morao tse ling tse ka bang teng, litemoso le litemoso tse amanang le diuretics.

Li-diuretics li bokae?

Hangata li-diuretics ke meriana e theko e tlaase ebile e theko e tlaase e fumanehang ka mabitso le mabitso a mofuta o tloaelehileng. Hoo e ka bang merero eohle ea Medicare le inshorense e tla koahela diuretics. Litšenyehelo li ka fapana ho latela moralo oa inshorense. Ntle le inshorense, litheko tsa li-diuretics li ka fapana ho latela bongata ba matlapa a laetsoeng. Leha ho le joalo, ho sebelisa file ea Karete ea theolelo ea lengolo la ngaka ho tsoa ho SingleCare e ka khona ho thusa ho fokotsa litšenyehelo tsa diuretics.